Buried Landscapes

In the locus of Cork…

See how the Lee valley at Cork changed from a river to an estuary, and then from an estuary to the land-claim of the medieval period (Beese 2012).  Then watch the same environments evolve at one location in the southeast quarter of medieval Cork (Beese 2014). Finally, view existing landscapes that model the former environments of Cork: river, estuary and land-claim.

Slide1

Subsurface topography of the fluvial deposits at Cork (erosional surface)

Slide2

The former estuary at Cork

Slide3

South Island (mid-twelfth century)

Slide4

Anglo-Norman Cork

Slide 4

River bar with channels at 36-48 South Main Street.

Slide 5

Reed marsh and intertidal mudflat, 36-48 South Main Street.

Slide 6

The initial land-claim at 36-48 South Main Street: dwelling mound and raised mudflat (late 11th to mid 12th centuries).

IMG_2285_stitchEd

Model: Anastomosing river with woodland, The Gearagh, near Macroom, County Cork

Slide 8

Model: Estuary with fringing reed marsh (high water), Douglas, County Cork

FenceC412Ed

Model: Land-claim at 36-39 South Main Street (Department of Archaeology, UCC)

The story begins when a river system was established in the Lee valley soon after the last glaciation. This fluvial environment of the early and mid-Holocene persisted into the Late Mesolithic  or Early Neolithic, when it was overtaken by an estuary as the marine transgression arrived from the east.

The former estuary at Cork
The former estuary (Beese 2013).  Click to enlarge.

The wetland, shown right, then remained unmodified until the end of the 11th century, when Hiberno-Norse people began to manually fill the estuary with silt, firstly, at the fringing marshes, and then moving into the intertidal area of mudflat and tidal channels. They did this by engineering diversion canals, timber revetments and other structures. Eventually, an organised settlement was built on South Island. This style of land-claim was continued by the Anglo-Normans who extended the occupied area across the full width of the Lee valley, so forming the medieval core of the city.


At 36-48 South Main Street…

Reed marsh and intertidal mudflat, 36-48 South Main Street.
Reed marsh and intertidal mudflat, 36-48 South Main Street (graphics by Nick Hogan, Department of Archaeology, UCC).

High quality reconstructions of previous environments are possible when these are based on archaeological excavations, and when additional evidence is available from engineering boreholes. On-site logging of boreholes and recovered samples is recommended.


Note on the term land-claim

The new phrase, land-claim, is in some ways preferable to the familiar term, reclamation, because at Cork, the Hiberno-Norse people converted an estuary into dry, habitable land, rather than restoring dry land that had been invaded by the sea.  On the other hand, reclamation is now so well established that its usage has widened to cover both restoration and conversion. And so, are both terms appropriate?